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Using Static Concentrator Technology to Achieve Global Energy Goal



Solar energy has demonstrated promising prospects in satisfying energy requirements, specifically through solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Despite that, the cost of installation is deemed as the main hurdle to the widespread uptake of solar PV systems due to the use of expensive PV material in the module. At this point, we argue that a reduction in PV cost could be achieved through the usage of concentrator

Risk-Based Investment System



One of the adjustments for investments regulated under Law No. 11 of 2020 regarding Job Creation is the transition to a Risk-Based Investment System implemented in the Risk-Based Business Licensing. According to Article 1 Government Regulation No. 5 of 2021 regarding Risk-Based Business License Management (GR 5 2021), Risk-Based Business Licensing is a business permission that is granted to applicants to start their business according to the level of potential for injury or loss from a hazard or a combination of the likelihood and effect of the hazard.

Dispute Between the Shareholders in the Event of Default in Capital Payment



Establishing a new company or investing in an existing business, no matter the size, requires an agreement between two or more shareholders of a corporation. The Shareholder Agreement is made not only to set out the capital and management structure, but also to mitigate any risk of default related to the implementation of the Shareholder Agreement. The Shareholder Agreement can later be implemented in the Company Article of Association.

Registration of Nanomaterials and Nano-Enable Products: Solution in Regulation and Governance or New Challenge



Regulation and governance of infinite number and diversified types of engineered nanomaterials has been a genuine challenge for the regulators around the world in recent times. Recent experience with the genetically modified food compelled the regulators, specially from the Europe, to take cautious move from the very beginning regarding nanomaterials.

Skill Recognition for Foreign Construction Workers



The construction sector has become the government's mainstay sector, especially when it comes to encouraging the National Economic Recovery from the COVID-19 pandemic. It is also a work field that still needs to use foreign workers, considering the need for special skills, especially those related to complex technology, For example, the Mass Rapid Transit project. In addition, foreign workers are used for work when the source of funds comes from investment, such as the Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail work...

Nanotechnology Through the Lens of Law: Asia and Beyond



Nanotechnology, the science of using materials at the atomic or molecule scale, is the next wonder after internet. Its virtually limitless prospects compel the government, research firms and business ventures around the world to invest huge amount for its commercial application. United Nations is convinced nanotechnology can be used to achieve the Millennium Development Goal and it can improve...

Asia: No Law for Nano?



Nanotechnology, often referred to as the next industrial revolution after internet, is an interdisciplinary study with limitless potential. It is now in the stage where ICT and use of plastic was in 1960s and biotechnology in 1980s. Already around 2000 consumer products are in the market and ILO predicts that by 2020, 20% of the products will be developed using nanotechnology. UNESCO traced top ten applications of nanotechnology within the UN Millennium Development Goals

No Royalty for Coal Process



Law No. 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation ("Omnibus Law") contains many new regulations regarding industrial, including the Implementation of the Energy and Mineral Resources Sector, regulated in the Government Regulation No. 25 of 2021 ("GR 25/2021"), which mostly regulates mineral mining activities and electricity. One of the new adjustments in the regulation is stipulated in article 3, which states: "Production operation Mining Business Permit, Production Operation Special Mining Business Permit and...

Provisions Regarding Energy and Electricity according to Government Regulation number 25 of 2021



Law number 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation (or generally referred to as the Omnibus Law) contains many new regulations regarding industrial activities, requiring the implementation of new regulations. Some of those new regulations are in Government Regulation number 25 of 2021 concerning the Implementation of the Energy and Mineral Sector (GR 25 of 2021) which mostly regulates coal and mineral mining activity, as well as electricity.

Use of Cyber Means to Enforce Unilateral Coercive Measures in International Law



The objective of this chapter is to examine the use of cyber means to enforce unilateral coercive measures in international law. In doing so it will consider the relationship between sanction regimes and cyberwarfare, and what might influence the effectiveness of such measures. It will begin by discussing the concept of "cyber warfare" and the threats that cyberattacks pose to States, organizations and the international legal order.

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