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Sanctions for Workers When Abusing Doctor's Note



Every worker/laborer has the right to a decent living, including being given leniency if the worker/laborer is sick. Article 81 point 40 of Law No. 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation ("Omnibus Law") which amends Article 153 paragraph (1) letter (a) of Law No. 13 of 2003 concerning Manpower ("Manpower Law") prohibits employers from terminating employment relationships (layoffs) on the grounds that the worker is unable to come to work due to illness according to a doctor's statement as long as the period does not exceed 12 (twelve) months continuously. Based on these provisions, the prohibition....

Nanotechnology: Sketching the Next Big Thing in Malaysian Context



Realizing the limitless prospects of nanotechnology, many countries in the world, irrespective of size and economy, have been investing and allocating considerable amount of funding. Innovative initiatives are also taken at both public and private sphere. Over the years, Malaysia has successfully established its competence in electrical and electronic, and chemical sectors, where nanotechnology is very prospective. The government of

A Historical Overview of Nuclear Energy Regulations in ASEAN



The consistent rise in the prices of oil, coal, fossil fuels and on the other, the lack of natural gas reserves has indicated the struggle of ASEAN for energy demand, which is eventually going to persist in future. Consequently, due to the scarcity of fossil fuels, oil and natural gas resource, nuclear energy surfaces as a palatable strategic option for ASEAN's future development agenda. However, a successful nuclear power program entails an

Omnibus Law Employment Sector: Employment Termination Procedure



Following Law No. 11 of 2020 on Job Creation ("Omnibus Law"), the Indonesian government has enacted a number of regulations in Omnibus Law. One of the enacted regulations is Government Regulation No. 35 of 2021 on the Fixed-Term Contract, Outsourcing, Work and Resting Hours and Termination of Employment ("GR 35"). The GR 35 provide procedures for terminating employment. Article 36 of GR 35 states that the termination of ...

Formation of e-Contracts under Iranian Electronic Commerce Act



The time and place of formation of a contract comprise significant legal effects under the law of contracts. In case of electronic contracts, the determination of time and place of dispatch and receipt of an electronic message plays a significant role to determine the time and place of formation. The Electronic Commerce Act of Iran provides a number of provisions concerning the formation stage. The modification of the dispatch

Value-Added Tax in The Liquidation Process of A Company



Liquidation is the process of dissolving a limited liability company, accompanied by the sale of its assets to meet their outstanding payment obligations, and distribute the remaining balance to all shareholders. Law No. 40 of 2007 concerning Limited Liability Companies ("Company Law") stipulates that the company liquidation can be caused by: 1. resolution of General Meeting of Shareholders ("GMS"). The GMS is a company organ other than the Board of Directors, and Board of Commissioners. Based on

New Minimum Requirements of Paid-Up Capital & Investment for Foreign Direct Investment (PMA)



On April 1st, 2021, the Investment Coordinating Board ("BKPM") had issued regulation No. 4 of 2021 concerning Guidelines and Procedures for Risk-Based Licensing and Investment Facilities ("BKPM Regulation 4/2021") following the changing approach related to licensing from a commitment-based system to risk-based system, as stipulated in Law No. 11 of 2020 concerning Job Creation. Though the above-mentioned regulation is mainly about government

Can Artificial Intelligence Technology Replace Judges in Deciding Legal Matters?



The rapid development of artificial intelligence technology has led to predictions about the decline in the functions of many established professions, including that of the profession of judges. This paper questions whether such technology can substitute judges in deciding legal matters. Artificial intelligence technology assumes there are general patterns that will treat the same way for cases with similar characteristics (similia similibus).

Energy Revolution for Our Common Future: An Evaluation of the Emerging International Renewable Energy Law



Climate change poses profound threats to the Earth and its people. Its mitigation, therefore, demands common but differentiated actions with comprehensive and coordinated approach. The global community has pledged to mitigate various greenhouse gases in some international soft law instruments. Exploitation of renewables to generate energy

How to Stop Paying Tax After the Dissolution of Your Company



Firstly, you need to understand that dissolving your company doesn't mean that it has lost its legal entity status. To end a company's legal entity status a liquidation process needs to be conducted. Liquidation according to the Indonesian Dictionary is "the dissolution of the company as a legal entity that includes the payment of liabilities to creditors and distribute the remaining assets to shareholders."

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